(Co-listed as AGRON 515, AN SCI 515, AE 515
3 credits (3-2). Alt F. Wiedenhoeft, Richard, Russell. Managing productivity and minimizing ecological impact of agricultural systems by understanding nutrient cycles, crop residue and manure management, grazing systems and multispecies interactions. Prerequisite: SUSAG 509.
Oral Exam Review (modified 10:35 pm, 11-8-01)
Meeting place and time: Lagomarcino Hall, Room E165
Tuesday and Thursday, 9:30 – 10:50
Tom Richard Jim Russell Mary Wiedenhoeft
3222 NSRIC 301 Kildee 1126 D Agronomy
294-0465 294-4631 294-3274
· to recognize that farming is influenced by biological and social factors
· to be able to critically evaluate farming systems and to describe an individual farm operation using the biogeochemical (energy, carbon, nutrients, water) cycles
· to further develop cooperative learning and working skills
Alteri, M. 1995. Agroecology: the Science of Sustainable Agriculture (2nd Ed.). Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Cavigelli, M.A., S.R. Deming, L.K. Probyn and R.R. Harwood (eds). 1998. Michigan Field Crop Ecology: Managing biological processes for productivity and environmental quality. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-2646, pp. 1-53.
Voisen, A. 1959. Grass Productivity. Philosophical Library, Inc, NY. Translated from the French by C.T.M Herriot. Island Press Edition 1988, Covelo, CA
Gliessman, S.R. 2000. Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.
Writing Assignments 30%
Discussion (leadership, regular participation) 20%
Oral Examination 20%
Team Project 30%
Writing Assignments: Written assignments will be done as individuals and assigned during class.
Evaluation of the written assignments will be based upon:
• clarity, organizational strength, and grammar
• effectiveness of references
• focus on the specific objectives of the assignment
• overall effectiveness and logic of the arguments made
Discussion: Students will be expected to participate on a regular basis during discussion, offering thoughtful, substantive information/opinion/ideas. Non-professionalism during discussion will not be tolerated.
Oral examination: During the week of 12 Nov. each student will meet with the instructors for 30 minutes to discuss topics that had been covered during class meetings, through readings, and developed in assignments.
Team project and presentation: 15% written, 15% oral
The team project will require a team of 4 students to
· develop an energy and nutrient flow analysis for a real farm, using the information or models covered in class.
· determine the environmental impacts of the farm
suggest changes to the system that would reduce the loss of energy or nutrients and/or reduce the negative/enhance the environmental impacts.
Aug 28, 30
Nutrient and Energy Cycles
Readings: Ag. Waste Mgt. Field Handbook, Chapter 3, glossary.
http://www.ftw.nrcs.usda.gov/awmfh.html, verified 22 August 2001
Conway, G.R. and E.B. Barbier. 1990. After the Green Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture for Development. Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London. Chapter 2, Indicators of agricultural performance; Appendix, Agroecosystem analysis.
FAO Livestock Environment Toolbox http://www.fao.org/Lead/Toolbox/Index.htm, verified 22 August 2001 (spend 1 hour orienting)
In-class Assignment: Discuss indicators of sustainability, correlate with core course content (concept map), and self-identify areas of expertise in that context.
Challenges with Intensification, Ecological Footprint Analysis
Readings: Rees, W.E. Revisiting carrying capacity: Area-based indicators of sustainability. Population and Environment. A J. of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3, Jan. 1996, http://www.dieoff.com/page110.htm, verified 22 August 2001
Oberle, S.L., and D.R. Keeney. 1991. A case for agricultural systems research. Journal of Environmental Quality 20(1):4-7.
Crews, T.E., C.L. Mohler, and A.G. Power. 1991. Energetics and ecosystem integrity: the defining principles of sustainable agriculture. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 6(3): 146-149.
Case studies of systems: 1) Example (Margaret Smith, Ash Grove Farm); 2) by students in teams. What are the challenges to sustainability in different systems?
Understanding Nutrient and Energy Cycles: Animal, Manure, Soil, & Plant
Alteri, M. 1997. Agroecology.: The Science of Sustainable Agriculture. Chapter 3.
Cavigelli, M.A., S.R. Deming, L.K. Probyn, and R.R. Harwood (eds). 1998. Michigan Field Crop Ecology: Managing biological processes for productivity and environmental quality. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-2646, pp. 1-53
Gliessman, S.R. 1998. Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, MI. Chapter 18.
Van Soest, Peter. 1987. Function of the Ruminant Forestomach. Chapter 15. pp. 230-252. Nitrogen Metabolism. In: Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
Owens, Fred N. and Richard Zinn. 1993. Protein Metabolism of Ruminants. pp. 227-249. In. Church, D. C. (ed.) The Ruminant Animal. Digestive Physiology and Nutrition. Waveland Press, Inc. Prospect Heights, IL.
National Research Council. 1998. Protein and Amino Acids. Chapter 2. pp. 16-30. And Minerals. Chapter 4. pp. 47-70. In: Nutrient Requirements of Swine 10th Revised Edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309059933/html/index.html, verified 22 August 2001
Sep 11, 13
Field Trip to Walnut Creek/Ag 450 Farm
Assignment: Analyze Energy and Nutrient Cycles (teams). Due Thursday Sept 13.
Farm System Analysis
Reading: Lovins, A.B., L.H. Lovins, and M. Bender. Energy and Agriculture, 1984. pp. 68-86 In: Meeting the Expectations of the Land: Essays in Sustainable Agriculture and Stewardship. W. Jackson, W. Berry, and B. Colman (eds.). North Point Press, San Francisco.
Pimentel, D. and M. Pimentel. 1997. Food, Energy and Society. University Press of Colorado. 77-84
R.S. Loomis and D.J. Connor, 1992. Crop Ecology: productivity and management in agricultural systems, Cambridge Univ. Press, UK. Chapter 15, Energy and labor. pp 400-427.
Ayres, G.E. 2000. Fuel required for field operations. ISU Extension Publication PM-709. www.extension.iastate.edu/pubs/, verified 22 August 2001
Hurley, E.G., J.P. Colletti, M.D. Duffy, and D.L. Karlen. 2000. A carbon sequestration budget for a 640 acre farm in central Iowa. www.public.iastate.edu/~ehurley/homepage.html, verified 22 August 2001
Sep 18, 20
Farm System Toobox: I. Manure Management
Readings: Richard, T.L., and H.L. Choi. 1999. Eliminating Waste: Strategies for Sustainable Manure Management. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12(7):1162-1169.
Ag. Waste Mgt. Field Handbook, Chapter 4, 10, and 11. http://www.ftw.nrcs.usda.gov/awmfh.html, verified 22 August 2001
Karlen, D.L., J.R. Russell, and A.P. Mallarino . A Systems Engineering Approach for Utilizing Animal Manure.. In: Animal Waste Utilization: Effective use of Manure as a Soil Resource. J.L. Hatfield and B.A. Stewart (eds.). Ann Arbor Press, Ann Arbor, MI. (Reprints will be handed out to the class).
Grubinger, V. 1999. Sustainable Vegetable Production. Chapter 6. NRAES, Ithaca, NY.
Assignment: Manure energy and nutrient flows (individual). Due Sept. 25.
Farm System Toobox: II. Livestock
Readings: National Research Council. 2001. Dairy Cattle Nutrition and the Environment. Chapter 12. pp. 244-248. In: Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle 7th Revised Edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309069971/html/ , verified 22 August 2001
National Research Council. 1998. Minimizing Nutrient Excretion. Chapter 8. pp. 103-106. In: Nutrient Requirements of Swine 10th Revised Edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309059933/html/index.html , verified 22 August 2001
Computer Lab: Ruminant Nutrition Model
Assignment: Livestock and feed energy and nutrient flows (individual). Due Sept. 27.
Sep 25, 27
Farm System Toolbox: III. Soil/Plant
Readings: Ag. Waste Mgt. Field Handbook, Chapter 6. http://www.ftw.nrcs.usda.gov/awmfh.html , verified 22 August 2001
P index for manures in Iowa: http://www.ia.nrcs.usda.gov/Technical/Phosphorus/phosphorusstandard.htm, verified 22 August 2001
Assignment: Develop manure management plans (individual). Due Oct. 2.
Thursday all-day Field Trip (Sept 27): Amana Farms (9am), Sunrise Energy and Beef (12:30), Zacharachis-Jutz (3:30)
Assignment: Analyze Energy and Nutrient Cycles (team). Due Oct. 9
Oct 2, 4
Historical Perspectives on Crop and Livestock Systems
Readings: D. B. Grigg, 1974. Mixed farming in western Europe and North America, pp. 152-186, Chapter 9 in The Agricultural Systems of the world, An Evolutionary Approach, Cambridge University Press, London.
Integrated Crop Systems Without Livestock Component, Crop Rotations, Green Manures, Legumes, Soil Enhancement
M. Altieri: Agroecology: the science of SAG, 2nd Edition, Chapters 9, 10, and 11.
Clements et al., 1995. Energy analysis of tillage and herbicide inputs in alternative weed management systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 52:119-128.
King, L.D. 1990. Sustainable Soil Ferility Practices. Chapter 5. In: SAG in Temperate Zones, Francis, C. A., C. B. Flora, and L. D. King (ed.) Wiley and Sons, New York.
Oct 16, 18
Integrated Crop and Livestock Systems: Grazing Systems
Readings: Voisen, A. 1959. Grass Productivity. Philosophical Library, Inc, NY. Translated from the French by C.T.M Herriot. Island Press Edition 1988, Covelo, CA. pp. 7-56, 67-86, 131-164, 193-205, 251-276, 291-296, and 319-329
Murphy, B. 1995. Pasture Management to Sustain Agriculture. Chapter 16 In Altieri (ed.) Agroecology: the Science of SAGe, (2nd Ed.). Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
De Haan, C, S. Henning Steinfeld, and H. Blackburn. 1996. Livestock and the Environment: Finding a Balance. Chapters 1 and 2 http://www.fao.org/Lead/Toolbox/Index.htm, verified 22 August 2001
Oct 23, 25
Integrated Crop Systems with Livestock Component: Ruminant Feeding and Housing Systems
Readings: De Haan, C, S. Henning Steinfeld, and H. Blackburn. 1996. Livestock and the Environment: Finding a Balance. Chapters 3 and 4. http://www.fao.org/Lead/Toolbox/Index.htm
Russell, J. 1998. Determining Forage Equipment Needs for Your Operation: A Beef Cow/Calf Nutritionist’s Viewpoint. A paper presented at the 1998 annual meeting of the Minnesota Forage and Grassland Council (To be handed out in class).
Integrated Crop Systems with Livestock Component: Swine Feeding and Housing Systems
Readings: R.S. Loomis and D.J. Connor, Crop Ecology: productivity and management in agricultural systems, Cambridge Univ. Press 1992, Chapter 17, Mixed farming in the N. American corn belt - case study.
Honeyman, M.S. Sustainability issues in US swine production, Journal of Animal Science 74:1410-1417, 1996.
Honeyman, M.S. Vasgotmodellen: Sweden's sustainable alternative for swine production, Am. Journal of Alternative Agriculture 10(3):129-132, 1995.
Oct 30, Nov 1
Simulation models for integrated systems
DAFOSYM model exercise
Nov 6, 8
Agroforestry: US models
Readings: MacDicken, K.G. and N.T. Vergara. 1990. Introduction to Agroforestry. In: Agroforestry: Classification and Management. K.G. MacDicken and N.T. Vergara (eds.). John Wiley and Sons.
USDA-NRCS. 1996. Agroforestry for Farms and Ranches. Agroforestry Technical Note 1. http://www.ftw.nrcs.usda.gov/tech_notes.html, verified 24 August 2001.
Recommended: Alteri, M. 1995. Agroecology: the Science of Sustainable Agriculture (2nd Ed.). Westview Press, Boulder, CO. pp. 247-263.
Agroforestry: International models
Readings: Torquebiau, E. 1992. Are tropical agroforestry home gardens sustainable. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 41:189-207.
Nov 13, 15
(30 minutes each student)
Tues 8-2; Wed 8-12, 2-5; Thurs. all day, except 11-1; Fri 8-3
Nov 27, 29
Panel: Practical Challenges to Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems.
Possible Invitees: F. Kirschenman, F.Thicke, D Lubbens, Alternates: M. Smith, V. Madsen, T. Franzen, R. Rosman, D. Thompson.
Readings: Nowak et al., Farmers and Manure Management: A Critical Analysis. In: Animal Waste Utilization: Effective use of Manure as a Soil Resource. J.L. Hatfield and B.A. Stewart (eds.). Ann Arbor Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
De Haan, C, S. Henning Steinfeld, and H. Blackburn. 1996. Livestock and the Environment: Finding a Balance. Chapter 6. http://www.fao.org/Lead/Toolbox/Index.htm
Panel: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Livestock Systems
Possible Invitees: Laura Jackson (UNI), Wynne Wright (UNI), M. Schwager (IPPA), Carol Balvanz (Iowa Beef Producers), Wendy Powers
Readings: Problems in US Agriculture pp. 89 –134, In: Alternative Agriculture, J Pesek, (ed.) National Research Council Washington DC, 1989.
Ikerd , J. E. 1998. Sustainable Agriculture, Rural Economic Development, and Large-Scale Swine Production pp. 157-170 In: Pigs, Profits, and Rural Communities, K. M. Thu and E. P. Durrenberger, (eds). State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.
Burkart, M.R., and D.E. James. 1999. Agricultural-nitrogen contributions to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia. Journal of Environmental Quality 28(3):850-859.
Wen Dazhong, 1988. Energy Use in the Crop Systems of China. CRC Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 7(1):25-53.
Power, A.G. 1999. Linking ecological sustainability and world food needs. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1:185-196.
Other readings recommended by panelists?
Assignment: Indicators of sustainability. Due Thursday Dec. 6.
Dec. 4, 6
6-8 teams of 4, Energy and nutrient flow analysis of real farms.
Dec. 11, 13